• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Efficacy of Group Metacognitive Therapy on Depression and Mental health of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
        Narges Eftekhari
        Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (M.S) can have a devastating effect on mental health due to the chronic nature of the disease, lack of definitive treatment and associated mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group metacognitive t Full Text
        Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (M.S) can have a devastating effect on mental health due to the chronic nature of the disease, lack of definitive treatment and associated mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group metacognitive therapy on major depression and mental health of patients with MS. Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental pre test-post test with a control group. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups with a diagnosis of MS and inclusion criteria among the members of the MS Association by available sampling method. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Goldberg Mental Health Questionnaires were completed by subjects before and after treatment. The experimental group was treated as a group with metacognitive approaches for 8 sessions of 90 minutes. Data were analyzed using univariate covariance (ANCOVA) statistical model. Results: The findings showed that between the mean scores of depression (F = 3.53) (P = 0.40) and mental health (F = 48.4) (P = 0.02) pre-test and post-test Experiments of the experimental and control groups showed a significant difference. Conclusion: The results show that group metacognitive therapy is effective in reducing depression and improving the mental health of MS patients. Therefore, using this supportive method can be used as an effective strategy to improve the mental health of MS patients and empower them. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Working Memory in Healthy Young Adults
        Nima ganji Roza Rashedi نگار کریمی پروانه  فرهاد بیگی Ali Akbar Soleimani Azam Noferesti Mohammad Hossein  Abdollahi Fatemeh Moin Al-Ghorabaei
        Introduction: Working memory is one of the fundamental cognitive ability that helps us perform complex mental processes but has limited capacity. Scientists are looking for ways to increase working memory capacity. Numerous studies have shown the effect of direct transc Full Text
        Introduction: Working memory is one of the fundamental cognitive ability that helps us perform complex mental processes but has limited capacity. Scientists are looking for ways to increase working memory capacity. Numerous studies have shown the effect of direct transcranial stimulation (tDCS) on various aspects of performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory function in healthy individuals. Methods: In this study, the effect of three-session of anodal tDCS stimulation period with an intensity of 2 mA in the lateral posterior anterior cortex on the working memory function of healthy individuals in two experimental and control random groups was investigated using N-Beck test. Results: The results showed that the subjects in the experimental group after three sessions of direct transcranial stimulation, presented a higher number of correct answers (p= 0.00) in less response time (p=0.00) in n-back task compare to their performance before the tDCS sessions. Subjects didn’t show significant difference through the same analysis which was performed in the control group. Conclusion: According to the n-back task results, before and after tDCS 3-session intervention, anodal transcranial stimulation on dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) improves the performance of healthy subjects in the experimental group and tDCS neuromodulation could be an alternative way to improve cognition abilities like working memory among of healthy people. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Cognitive Reflection and the Coronavirus Conspiracy Beliefs
        Hashem Sadeghiyeh Iman Khanahmadi پروانه  فرهاد بیگی نگار کریمی Nima ganji
        Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic reminded us of how quickly conspiracy ideas can spread and how dire their consequences could be. One important question is what traits would predict susceptibility to conspiracy beliefs. Previous research pointed to one of those trait Full Text
        Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic reminded us of how quickly conspiracy ideas can spread and how dire their consequences could be. One important question is what traits would predict susceptibility to conspiracy beliefs. Previous research pointed to one of those traits: reflective versus intuitive cognitive style. Method: Here we examined how cognitive style correlates with founded and unfounded beliefs about the origin of COVID-19. A sample of 173 Iranians rated the likelihood of different beliefs about the origin of the new coronavirus and answered the original Cognitive Reflection Test. Results: In line with previous research, the reflective responses were negatively correlated with conspiracy beliefs and positively correlated with the founded statement (that the virus was spread from wild animals by chance). The reverse pattern was found for the intuitive responses. Conclusion: The results accrue more evidence in support of a relationship between reflective-analytic style of thinking and the tendency to reject conspiracy beliefs. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Effect of alfaalfa (Medicago sativa) extract on spatial memory and anxiety like behaviors of ovariectomized rats
        Hadi Semizeh Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei Naeem Erfanimajd Ali Shahriari
        Introduction: According to the high phytoestrogens content of alfalfa and the effect of phytoestrogens on CNS, the effect of ethyl acetate extract of alfalfa on spatial memory and anxiety like behaviors of ovariectomized rats were accessed. Methods: Forty-five female W Full Text
        Introduction: According to the high phytoestrogens content of alfalfa and the effect of phytoestrogens on CNS, the effect of ethyl acetate extract of alfalfa on spatial memory and anxiety like behaviors of ovariectomized rats were accessed. Methods: Forty-five female Wistar rats (three-month old) were accidentally divided into 5 groups, including sham, ovariectomy (ovx), sham+4 (4g/kg extract in diet), ovx+2 (2g/kg extract in diet) and ovx+4 (4g/kg extract in diet) two weeks after ovariectomy or sham operation. Memory and anxiety like behavior were elevate using Morris water maze and plus maze, respectively. MDA and antioxidant enzymes were also measured in hippocampus. Results: concentration of estrogen in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in hippocampus were reduced in ovx group, but consumption of alfalfa extract increased SOD activity while decreased catalase activity. Performance of ovx+2 group was decreased in training trial of Morris water maze, while consumption of alfalfa extract in ovariectomized rat increased percentage of open arm time (OAT%) in elevated plus maze. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the five-factor model of the Mc health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) has satisfactory validity and reliability. Thus, this questionnaire can be used in future studies to assess the quality of life of patient’s type 2 diabetes. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Identify the attributions style of the fans of Persepolis and Esteghlal teams about the defeat and victory of the team
        پروانه  فرهاد بیگی Rada Habibi Aida Ayazi
        Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the attributions of Persepolis and Esteghlal fans about failure and success to investigate the hypothesis that the result of competition and the level of support have a significant impact on how to understand the re Full Text
        Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the attributions of Persepolis and Esteghlal fans about failure and success to investigate the hypothesis that the result of competition and the level of support have a significant impact on how to understand the results and subsequent attributions methods used to explain the results from the fans perspective. Methods: The assessment tools used in this research included Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) and Revised Causal Dimensional Scale (RCDS-II) was provided to the subjects online and subsequently 44 fans of the two teams with different levels of support volunteered to participate in this study. After data collection, methods of analysis of variance and correlation were used. Result: By comparing the four subscales of revised causal dimensions, personal control, external control, stability and causality, with three levels of support among the fans of Esteghlal and Persepolis teams in the results of one-way analysis of variance, a significant difference was observed in the external control subscale. Also, the results of correlation show that there is a correlation between the level of support with the locus of causality and external control. Conclusion. Examining the effect of fan levels on attribution styles regardless of the outcome of the game shows that along with increasing fan levels, there is a greater tendency to use external control attributions and people are more agreed on the impact of external control on team failure and success. The results of correlation also show that there is a correlation between the level of support with the locus of causality and external control And with the increase of the level of support in the subjects, the amount of their attributions to the locus of causality and especially to external control to explain the results of defeat and victory is higher. Manuscript Document